Murder and Fascism – Rise of the Ustaše | BETWEEN 2 WARS I 1934 Part 3 of 4

In 1934, the world witnesses the very public
rise of a Croat terror organization in Yugoslavia that will eventually collaborate with the
Nazis and commit hideous crimes against humanity during WW2. It is the Ustasa. Welcome to Between-2-Wars a chronological
summary of the interwar years, covering all facets of life, the uncertainty, hedonism,
and euphoria, and ultimately humanity’s descent into the darkness of the Second World War. I’m Indy Neidell. As we have seen, the 1930s is a decade where
rulers across the world try to mold their countries and subjects into their own worldviews. Hitler approaches it by creating a state within
the state that then proceeds with the total Nazification of Germany; in the Soviet Union,
Stalinist economic policy attempts to transform the economy via a “revolution from above”; Both approaches start with an underground
extremist political movement centered on political violence. In the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, this will all
come together in fateful combination for a monarch who has done everything he can to
forcefully unify a quarreling nation often paralyzed by ethnic conflict. That monarch is King Aleksandar I, who as
we saw in our previous episode on Yugoslavia had done away with the parliamentary system
and made himself dictator, in an effort to forge a single Yugoslav identity and put an
end to the “tribal” division that he thought were destroying his country. One of the most radical changes he introduces
is the Banovina system which reorganizes the Kingdom into nine new provinces which carefully
ignore ethnic boundaries or old borders. He couples such reorganization with the suppression
of his opponents. And as the 30s begin, Aleksandar and his Prime
Minister, Petar Zivkovic, appear to have everything under control. Vladko Macek, leader of the now-banned Croat
Peasant Party (HSS), is safely in jail and awaiting trial because of his alleged involvement
with a separatist bomb plot; Svetozar Pribicevic, a Democrat, and a leading opposition voice
allied to the Croat Nationalists is under virtual house arrest in Serbia; the illegal
Communist Party is under constant police surveillance, and other opposition leaders are lying low. But there is an undercurrent of resentment
felt by many of the King’s subjects. When Macek and over 20 other defendants go
on trial in April 1930, it quickly turns into a public fiasco. Many of the defendants retract previous confessions,
claiming that they were extracted under torture. Macek and his legal team deny the charge of
separatism, but also openly denounce the proceedings as an act of propaganda. Macek and seven co-conspirators are acquitted. Thirteen others receive jail sentences, and
the accusations of torture leave a bitter aftertaste with much of the Croat public. Conscious that this can easily trigger “tribal
loyalties,” Aleksandar and Zivkovic move to mobilize popular support. They seed a new regime-friendly “grassroots”
movement amongst Croat peasants to supplant the influence of the HSS. With the help of Karla Kovacevic, former vice
president of the HSS, they create the “Yugoslav Peasant Movement” with almost weekly pro-Yugoslavian
mass rallies throughout Croatia. They fund cultural organizations to publish
journals and calendars and run libraries and archives that promote the Yugoslav idea. And they make sure that any resistance is
held in check by an efficient police state. As soon as Aleksandar seized power, he had
enacted several laws to create a new security apparatus primed to monitor and pressure any
potential political threats. Anyone who wants to hold a public meeting
has to request permission three days in advance, provide authorities an agenda for the meeting,
and accept the presence of a police agent who has the power to disperse it immediately
if he deems it unlawful. Special courts are set up to deal with any
acts of ‘treason.’ Control over the press is tightened with state
censors given significant power to ban anything which might threaten the regime. Their primary targets are stories about Croat-Serb
disputes and economic difficulties, but the paranoia of authorities sometimes goes further. For instance, an article on the Indian independence
movement is censored out of a Croat paper for being an analogy for independence. Paranoia spreads through state security institutions. Thousands of politicians are monitored daily,
every minute detail of their lives recorded. But even fairly apolitical citizens draw the
spying eye of the state. Choral groups are disbanded by authorities
if they are unable to sing the Yugoslav national anthem. Teachers are monitored closely for any sign
that they are not wholly devoted to Nationalist education. Denunciations are encouraged with frequent
cases of citizens accusing one another of insulting the King or displaying tribal symbols. It checks organized resistance for now, but
the colossal effort burdens a regime that soon seems to be running out of steam. Aleksandar and Zivkovic are running out of
ideas. In the first year of the dictatorship, 163
new laws introduce significant changes. But already in 1930, only one or two acts
of relevant legislation can be considered as substantial. Not a big deal if they would so far be successful
in cementing their goal of Yugoslavism right? But that is hardly the case. The countless rallies by Kovacevic’s Yugoslav
Peasant Movement haven’t really managed to engage the Croat peasants for Yugoslavism. They dismiss participants and speakers as
sycophant opportunists. By 1931 the movement is already fading into
insignificance. Muslims in the Bosnia and Herzegovina region
are also suspicious of the regime. They resent its tendency to view Islam as
a barrier to further integration. While authorities make concerted efforts to
intervene in religious matters, they fail or decline to investigate reported cases of
discrimination and abuse by state operatives. Now, the common gripe amongst most non-Serbs
is that Yugoslav unitarianism is basically an unconvincing cover for Serb dominance. But many Serbs are also dissatisfied. King Aleksandar, viewed by Serbs as their
champion, has also taken away their political representation and democratic rights. Professors at the University of Belgrade fume
at being forced to focus their lessons on “Yugoslav history” and literature instead
of continuing to follow Serbian biased historiography and culture. Continued economic hardship doesn’t help. Agricultural prices, although taking slightly
longer to fall than other South Eastern European countries, have by now plummeted. Protectionist isolationism has gripped many
industrialized foreign countries during the trade war launched by the US Smoot Hawley
Act in 1930. By 1934 Yugoslav exports have fallen by 58%. The German Banking Crisis of 1931 also impacts
Yugoslavia. The Austrian bank, Creditanstalt, whose collapse
triggered the crisis in the first place, was the largest lender to Yugoslavia. As the domino effect topples bank after bank,
any alternatives are eliminated, and Yugaolavia’s pool of credit dries up. That could be mitigated somewhat by German
Reparations, but the Hoover Moratorium, which effectively ends Germany’s reparations obligations
also cancels the annual payment of $16 million Yugoslavia receives. As always, economic difficulties drive political
decisions in a new direction. France is pressuring Aleksander to return
to democracy. When in 1931 they offer a badly needed loan,
under the condition of a new constitution, the King agrees. But despite royal assurances, it’s hardly
a return to democracy. The highest goal of Yugoslav unity is used
to justify hugely restrictive regulations of the re-established “parliamentary” system. New electoral rules are designed to prevent
any tribal or religious parties remerging. In practice, this means that no meaningful
opposition can be elected at all. Candidates can only stand if they have support
in every single one of the 306 electoral districts, and can only run if they are on a government-approved
list. A Senate system is also introduced, but this
is similarly restrictive, with the King selecting half of the members personally and the loyal
Banovina councils the rest. The first election is announced for November
8, but only the government’s party is allowed to stand. Elections proceed despite a joint statement
from leaders of the former major parties; the Radicals, the Agrarians, the Democrats,
the Slovene People’s Party, and the Yugoslav Muslim Organization declaring that the new
constitution has changed nothing. Macek and his HSS are not signatories; instead,
they author a leaflet calling on Croats to boycott the election. In the run-up to voting day, the state apparatus
does everything they can to encourage participation. The press reminds readers that failure to
vote is a betrayal of the millions who died for Yugoslavia in the Great War. Police also ramp up surveillance of any “tribalist”
individuals and take action against anyone encouraging a boycott. Predictably, the government party wins the
election. In December it is given a name: Yugoslav Radical-Peasant
Democracy, a cumbersome amalgamation of the names of previous parties to provide some
sense of continuity. But this effort to force unity soon backfires. Factions now start to emerge within the single-party. Some Croat deputies grow increasingly rebellious,
and probe how far they can forward ‘tribal’ interests and get away with it. Some of the Serb deputies start planning for
a revival of the Radical Party. In April 1932, as things continue to deteriorate,
the King forces Prime Minister Zivkovic to retire. His successor only lasts a couple of months
and is replaced in July by Milan Srskic. But he won’t really do much other than aggravate
groups already resentful of the government. And resentful they are. Despite the lack of organized resistance,
spontaneous peasant riots are frequent in 1932. In one incident near Ludbreg, 200 hundred
angry Croat peasants march along a country road to personally confront the governor of
their Banovina, all while waving Croatian flags and singing nationalist hymns. Constitutional resistance re-emerges. Frustrated by the lack of change, ex-politicians
from the Croatian Peasant Party, Independent Democrats, and other federalist and even separatist
groups, draft the Zagreb Points in November 1932. The resolution condemns royal absolutism and
demands a reorganization of the state with respect for autonomous interests. The resolution triggers similar demands from
Slovene and Muslim leaders. The King does make a small concession, loosening
electoral regulations somewhat. Other than this, however, nothing changes. No new elections are held, and Macek is again
thrown into prison at the beginning of 1933. The other Croat leader, Pribicevic, had been
freed from his internment in 1931 because of ill health and allowed to emigrate. Free from the risk of prison, he will now
mount an intense campaign against Aleksandar’s rule form abroad. But there are more sinister forces for Aleksandar
on the horizon. There has always been another side to the
Croat nationalism beyond the HSS and its constitutional politics. The most significant radical movement is the
Croatian Party of Rights. Active since the mid-19th century, the Party
of Rights espouses extreme Croat nationalism and anti-Serb feeling. Founded on the principle of a Greater Croatia,
many of its leaders have denied the existence of separate Serb, Slovene, and Bosnian Muslim
nationalities altogether, seeing them instead as Croats corrupted by foreign influence. The Party of Rights has never been able to
build a mass movement, being side-lined by the charismatic Radic and his peasant following. Many no longer live in Yugoslavia, and the
ones in the country have been operating underground since Aleksandar’s dictatorship began. The more militant members both at home and
abroad are now coalescing around Ante Pavelic. He is currently in exile making connections
with the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization, the IMRO a long-established
militant movement for an autonomous Macedonia. This has resulted in Pavelic being sentenced
in death in absentia, which only heightens his radical credentials. Even before he left Croatia, Pavelic had set
up a rudimentary paramilitary group and an underground newspaper. Now a more forceful movement gains importance
under Pavic’s leadership. Founded in 1930 it is called the Ustasa after
the Croatian verb ‘ustati’ to rise up. Its constitution is released in 1932 and declares
that the “movement has the task to liberate Croatia under foreign yoke, with all means,
including an armed uprising, in order that it become a completely free and independent
state on the whole of its historic ethnic territory.” Pavelic and the Ustasa find natural allies
in the growing fascist movement throughout Europe. The Ustasa reject parliamentary democracy,
espouse fundamentalist Roman Catholicism, have extreme nationalism as their ideological
bedrock, and foster cults of violence and strong one-man leadership. In contrast to other fascists, Pavelic has
no interest in mass politics. Instead, his movement is made up of a small
and elite fighting force engaging in violent terrorism. An Ustasa insurgent, according to Pavelic,
“must be severe and merciless, without mercy and pardon, for his duty is to lessen the
pain of the Croatian people with fire, iron and blood, to crush with force the neck of
the foreign parasite and so liberate his homeland.” With this in mind, training camps are set
up in Hungary and Italy, two powers with territorial claims against Yugoslavia, who also provide
a great deal of funding to the burgeoning group. From these camps, acts of terror are planned
and executed. These primarily involve planting time bombs
on trains to Yugoslavia to cause material destruction, fear, and chaos. In September 1932, a small uprising in the
Lika region of Croatia is planned, with a police station being raided by Ustaše. It is, however, quickly crushed, but it unnerves
Yugoslav authorities who are unsure how powerful the movement is. By 1934, the Ustase number 600 members, all
are well trained and fanatically committed to an independent Croatia. Throughout all this unrest, resentment, and
terrorist fermentation, Aleksandar has slowly been retreating from public and domestic politics. Ruling is increasingly left to the JRSD, renamed
the Yugoslav National Party (JNS) in July 1933, whose ministers and loyal press largely
manage to keep the King placated as he focuses on foreign policy. Local elections in October 1933 are once again
profoundly undemocratic but this time also exceptionally mishandled. Government ministers make no effort to be
subtle in the intimidation of voters and manipulation of results. The King takes the ministers assurances that
the results demonstrate his nation is happy. In the aftermath of the election, a British
diplomat laments that the only person in the Kingdom fooled by the election is the King
himself. And it does seem that both the King and his
government fail to see any danger at this point. In the wake of the chaotic elections, the
British Consul in Zagreb reports that “every section of the population of Slovenia and
Croatia cordially hates the Belgrade Government and bitterly resents the failure of the Monarch
to attempt to remedy the situation.” On a royal visit to Zagreb to celebrate his
birthday on December 16, authorities foil a Ustasa assassination plot. The police only tell Aleksandar about this
the following day. He reacts pretty calmly and decides to stay
in the city as planned until December 26. As 1934 rolls around, Yugoslavia simply seems
to be adrift. Srskic resigns as prime minister in January
and is replaced by Nikola Uzunovic who continues the same policy of issuing the same unitarian
slogans, the same unitarian policies, and the same police repression that has been the
order of the day since 1929. But change seems to be in the air. On advice from France, Aleksandar has softened
government relations with the HSS. Indeed just before embarking on a visit to
France on a diplomatic mission, he tells a confidant that upon his return “I will do
everything that is necessary to form a Royal government from all former political groups
or parties, respectively, which have until now been in opposition.” But he’ll never be able to make this happen. He arrives at the French port of Marseilles
on October 9, 1934. The King and the French Foreign Minister ride
through streets flocked with onlookers and cameras. A gunman leaps forward shooting at the King
and the Minister. Aleksandar dies instantly, victim of one of
the first assassinations captured on film. The attack is carried out by Vlado Chernozemski
a member of the IMRO and an instructor at an Ustasa camp in Hungary. In fact, the assassination is a joint effort
from the two anti-Yugoslav terrorist groups. Chernozemski tries to flee the scene but is
cut down by a police saber, shot in the head, and then savagely beaten by the crowd. Somehow he survives and is taken for interrogation. He dies later that evening. Three Ustasa members have traveled with Chernozemski
to support his effort, are also unable to escape, and are arrested. Surprisingly, and despite governmental fears,
ethnic violence does not flare up in reaction to the Kings death. In fact, Aleksandar’s body first comes to
Zagreb to lie in state and is visited by an estimated 200,000 Croats. Yugoslav flags fly at half-mast across the
entire Kingdom. His grand funeral takes place in Belgrade,
and some nationalist firebrands are even released from prison to attend proceedings. One Slovene politician is quoted as saying
that “everything else is forgotten” and that “we ought to work and live for Yugoslavia.” Macek is also freed in December and similarly
appeals for unity. Foreign leaders also pay their respects. Hermann Göring from Germany and Phillipe
Petain from France solemnly attend the event. But is is not over; instead, Aleksandar’s
death has put an end to any unification process. The rest of the decade will see further stratification
along ethnic lines, the continued influence of fascist ideology, and growing public apathy. In 1941, when the Nazi war machine turns to
the East, Pavelic and the Ustasa will join them, grow into an army and proceed to subjugate,
oppress, incarcerate, and murder hundreds of thousands of Serbs, Yugoslav Jewish, Roma,
and Sinti men, women, and children. If you haven’t seen our first two installments
on interwar Yugoslavia, then you can watch them right here. Our TimeGhost Army member this week is [!!!]. Thanks
to people like [!!!] we are able to continue making quality historical content such as
this, so do the right thing and subscribe to us on Patreon. Subscribe, ring the bell and…

Glenn Chapman


  1. There is a lot going on in this episode. Extreme nationalism, fascism, authoritarianism, terrorism, and so on so forth. These things are controversial enough, but they're also taking place in one of history's biggest minefields: the Balkans. We've done absolutely everything we can to stick to the facts and stay objective. It's a tough one to research but we have used credible academic texts and know we've done a good job.

    If you think we've got something wrong, then feel free to (politely!) point it out in the comments. But remember that just because you don't like how a particular group or person has acted, it doesn't mean that the facts are wrong. Also, try to refrain from drawing any parallels with the modern-day to support your agenda. The fact that Yugoslavia struggled with ethnic tension has nothing to do with present-day debates on immigration and multiculturalism. Let's stick to history, not myth.


    STAY CIVIL AND POLITE we will delete any comments with personal insults, or attacks.
    AVOID PARTISAN POLITICS AS FAR AS YOU CAN we reserve the right to cut off vitriolic debates.
    HATE SPEECH IN ANY DIRECTION will lead to a ban.
    RACISM, XENOPHOBIA, OR SLAMMING OF MINORITIES will lead to an immediate ban.

  2. He didnt try to forge single Yugoslav identity, he tried to force everyone to be a Serb. His provinces made sure that 7 out of 9 have Serb majority. You really know barely anything on the issue

  3. Indy, there's a bug in your desk light…no, a REAL bug, not a listening device!

  4. 4:47 Now we know what was Kaiser Willy doing after WW1 was over. He went to Yugoslavia to start a singing chorus!

  5. I am from former czechoslovakia . In 1980´s , yugoslavia also being socialist country , there have been delegations and visitations of workers and such (also) from Yugoslavia . I remember, when father said "Jugoši přijedou" …. " yugoslavs will arrive" …. that automatically implied , that there will be broken glass and broken chairs and tables in the pub , as the nacionalist tensions got let loose after couple of beers . No surprises in 1990´s .

  6. Great Job, I enjoyed it a lot!, See this New Album 'Monish Jasbird – Death Blow', channel link www.youtube.com/channel/UCv_x5rlxirO-WKjLIyk6okQ?sub_confirmation=1 , you can try 🙂

  7. All the TimeGhost programs need to be used as learning resources in all US secondary schools … just sayin'

  8. Allot of Croatian schools unfortunaetly dont teach this to their Students and just talk about Serbia in the 90s.Very informative and epic video!

  9. Today would have been my grandfather’s 79th birthday( he died this summer) and he was born in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1940, I am very lucky to be alive considering the time and place he was in.

  10. Много ми хареса как под снимката на Черноземски пише български революционер а не античен македонец

  11. Why is nobody reacting to lies spread in the comments that we in Croatia are not learning this in school. That we support Ustaše idology today and that we need to be "exposed". This is propaganda that we are listening from Serbia since early 80s in their preparations for war against Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and after the war to justify their aggression. Please delete these, and all similar comments to keep discusion polite and prevent it from getting out of control.

  12. at the time croats were thinking that their goverment was legit, until half of dalmatia was given to mussolini, that was only 20 days of full freedom

  13. Im sure this will be a nice and civil comments section, just let me put the popcorn in the microwave before we begin

  14. This is THE BEST and most complete video and explanation in general on this very sensitive topic. Excellent job!

  15. Very good video explaining a difficult complex and often confusing political situation faced by Yugoslavia being torn apart by a variety of completing Nationalist groups prepared to use extreme violence including assassination and mass murder wow!!

  16. There's a difference between not liking the political system and actually killing people because of it. Only extremists are willing to kill to get their way most people aren't extremists though.

  17. Serbs killed his own king in 1903. Serbs killed austrian archduke Ferdinand in 1914. Serbs celebrate Gavrilo Princip even today. And nobody says Serbs are extremists. Croats helped serbian king was murdered and Croats are extremists. Thanks guys. Regards from Croatia.

  18. This is the reason for Germany's unconditional support for the Croat side in Yugoslavia in the early 1990s.

  19. My Grand-grand father, who was Slovene, cried upon hearing the news of Alexander's death. His family was a staunchly nationalist one. Today it is often forgotten, that the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, despite all the tensions was very much united.

    After all, the Ustaše had only 600 people.
    May Alexander rest in peace and may his son as well.

  20. Love this channel. Not sure about the fancy graphics you have added. Are they really adding anything here?

  21. Better disable the comments before shit hits the fan… Cause it's starting to hit the fan…

  22. All of the episodes for 1934 have been about rising fascist movements. Perhaps the next episode will be about a sunny, formerly powerful, Western European country???

  23. Just watched the episode and I think your work has become better and better each time. You did a great job describing the situation and the creation of the biggest dark spot in my country's history

  24. Damnit you just reminded me of Zog, you need to make episode on Albania now, we all know how much you like Zog Indy.

  25. Congratulations on a great episode! You enlightened me a lot about this part of my country's history. The Pet Shop Boys (my favourite group) quotation at the end was just the cherry on the magnificent cake!

  26. A state like Yugoslavia was doomed to fail eventually, no matter how hard they tried to repress ethnic, religious, linguistic, tribal identities and push an artificial “Yugoslav” civic identity.

  27. Ustašes killed also croats not just serbs and other minorities .regime killed anybody who opposed them

  28. Have you done a video about the “Young Turks” yet? Were they part of WWII?
    (The ethnic massacre of the Armenians?)
    I’d like to see your take on this WWI atrocity.

  29. Good episode. Ustase and Indeppendent state of Croatia are responsable for biggiest crimes in WW2 after nazi Germany and maybe Japanese. Hope that you'll do episode about Diana Budisavljevic on WW2 channel when time comes, which is responsable for most humane thing done in whole WW2. And nobody knows it, not even in Serbia, because afterwar comunist represion.

  30. incredible show, it is surreal seeing an assassination like that on video. You always hear about people being assassinated, but hearing the screams and seeing the reaction of the crowd is so different, it reminds you this is all real. Love this channel so much.

  31. A great episode on a very complex and violent period. And so far a great job on keeping the comments as calm as possible. You have not repressed any side but seem to have kept violence to a minimum. You deserve the Tube Peace Prize.

  32. Few important events were left out in the video. On the June 20th 1928, Serbian member of (Yugoslav) parliament, Puniša Račić (People's Radical Party) during parl. session, killed three Croat MPs of Croat's Peasant Party (among them, it's leader Stjepan Radić). This led to "6th of January" dictatorship of King Aleksandar. It lasted between 06.01.1929. and 03.09.1931. During that time, parliament was absolved, work of all political parties and unions were forbiden, hard censorship of the press was instituted. Constitution was suspended, and all legislative and executive power was held by the King. In 1929, the name of the state was changed from Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenians to Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Country was divided to 9 "banovine".

  33. These three videos you've made so far on Yugoslavia have been truly great. I've never before come across a video on the topic of interwar Yugoslavia (or generally on south slavic ethnic tensions) that I didn't feel missed something important, but with this one, I truly have nothing to complain about. You have managed to condense that extremely sensitive and complicated topic into (so far) three 15-20 minute videos with more ability, clarity, grace and nuance than I've seen anyone do before. Really, I'm very impressed. Thanks for making these videos, and for doing the great work you do on this channel.

  34. Okay i agree that this is a good video and all in all i can say historically accurate, but i must say that I'd appreciate that during your weekly episodes you dig throughly through records and report a lot of massacres, pillages, rapes and other war crimes commited by the serb movement of chetniks on croat and bosniak population, just to prove to these brainwashed serbs that all sides did bad stuff and that they cannot continue spreading hate and lies about croats and keep portraying us as the sole bad guys which would only contribute to further hate to us croats, I'm not saying that we didn't do war crimes and that we shouldn't carry the burden of what our ancestors did, i am just saying that all sides did bad stuff and that we shouldn't be blamed as sole bad guys. I hope this made any sense, kind regards from a Croat 🙂

  35. t's the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand handled right but gone wrong anyways

  36. I used to feel sorry for Alexander dying in the back of that car. Now, not so much.

  37. If you have time to read Robert Hienlin"s "The Moon is a Harsh Mistress" you wil get as goo sci fi take on the same history

  38. Wow, that assassination footage is is neat to see. First one caught on film. And sound too!

  39. I applaud the effort to allow comments. Hopefully the civil ones that were left on could allow some dialogue between the children of those whose fathers did not open enough to do the same. In the end nations fail for the lack of inclusion to he people who inhabit them..reference " Why Nations Fail" by Daron Acemoglu. Some comfort is found in the fact there has never been a Yugoslav nationality by birth…even more comfort is found in the fact that Croatia very nearly won the World Cup last year 🙂

  40. I love this show, but the presentation is incredibly old-fashioned, like it's from the 90's. Maybe that's why the channel hasn't taken off quite like the WWI channel. The content, though 💯

  41. Another bang up job. I found it very informative. It does sadden me that those same forces still seem to be just under the surface in that region, even today. Tito seemed to have been able to keep them in check(they were simmering and seething, but they knew what he would have done to anyone who tried to oppose him). After his death those ancient tensions and hatreds seemed to bubble up and explode again. Even though it seems calm today( at least in the media's reporting), I wonder how calm things really are in the Region.

  42. "The crowd is infuriated, the police can't hold them. It's an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth. Pandemonium has broken loose! The mob is out to beat the man, and they'll do it too!" Old timey commentators were so eloquent in the way they described a situation, you truly have to admire that.

  43. Indy, with all due respect, Yugoslavia is not a nation, and the King ruled over nationS, not a nation. Many different languages, traditions, ethnicities…

  44. I think people moved over history tragic times or I Hope so, but looking at Poland now…

  45. A great video(!) Thanks for spending such time on the topic which allows outsides to see a more nuanced view of the region than just saying "those balkan people are just inherently violent and barbaric"

    Here's a couple of other details:
    1) My grandfather tells me after King Alexander's assassination that around half the people in his little Croat village went unshaved for 40 days in mourning. This is an orthodox custom (Serbs and Greeks do it) but it seems some of these catholic Croatian villagers also did it and kept their beards unshaved as a mark of respect.
    2) The Zagreb assassination attempt mentioned in the video at 17:08 was done by Petar Oreb from Vela Luka on the island of Korčula. He was a Croat villager who joined the Ustaše in the 1930s. In a similar way to Gavrilo Princip, Oreb was given a gun, barely any training and sent to Zagreb to kill the king. Unlike Princip he failed, the story is he saw a Catholic priest travelling near the king and lost his wits, giving himself up without a shot fired. The king is said to have listened in during Oreb's interrogation, trying to figure out why someone would be interested in killing him. The difference with Vlado Chernozemski was that Chernozemski was well-trained with the pistol which made him succeed in assassinating King Alexander.

  46. Nationalism has no distinctive policy but war, and it yokes all other policies to the goal of slaughter.

  47. Great, short, direct, without any "philosophy" included, uncensored truth and history. Salud from Croatia, Indy, God bless ur work!

  48. Great episode although the only criticism is that Bosnian Muslims should be referred to as Bosniaks, which is the actual name of that ethnic group. "Bosnian Muslims" was the term imposed by authorities of the first and second Yugoslavia in order to reduce Bosniaks to a religious group with no political power. Otherwise, great job and keep up the good work!

  49. You guys should really do a special video during the inter-war period about IMRO(the internal Macedonian revolutionary organisation), their inner civil war between the left wing faction of IMRO and the right wing faction of IMRO have left a great mark on modern Bulgarian and Macedonian politics other than that it will be interesting to show the influence of other the nations (like the soviet union with their may manifesto conspiracy) towards this organisation and the Macedonian question as a whole

  50. so that's when all the shit began with the Yugoslav internal hate Jesus what a mess. even Tito with years of peace could not stop this bunch of dicks eventually trying to wipe each other out
    nothing like some Slavic hate that never goes away.

  51. Hi Indy, why do you spell King Alexander as "Aleksandar"? Is it a Serbian/Balkan form of spelling?

  52. I am very greatful to see that history of Balkans and former Yugoslavia has much more stories and details in english-speaking chanels, in the past 2-3 years. And many east and central european countries, like Poland and Romania as well. Modern approach of european history is no longer ( for now only on Youtube) germanocentric, those countries are of huge influence and importance for Old continent, and even world , but that is not whole Europe.

  53. I don’t understand why Yugoslavia and Romania are described as “royal dictatorships” instead of “absolute monarchies”, as in I don’t see what differentiates them from, say Saudi Arabia today. A “royal dictatorship” would be Horthy’s Hungary (monarchy in absentia) or Franco’s Spain (after Franco eventually revived the Spanish monarchy in absentia) which after his death led to another restoration of the the House of Bourbon

  54. Hey Time Ghost, could you sort out the playlist to put the different miniseries together? It jumps around between the different topics and its hard to find episodes like the end of the Radio age one.

  55. Hey Indy, there's a very popular TV show called Black Sun (Senke nad Balkanom – Shadows over Balkan https://www.imdb.com/title/tt6108262/?ref_=nv_sr_1?ref_=nv_sr_1 ) which happens in the 30's in Yugoslavia. If you manage to find subtitles, I'd highly recommend it. The second season started a few days back, and it is precisely this period you are talking about.

  56. A serb kills franz ferdinand to free Bosnia and rest of Balkans from Austria-Hungary but causes ww1. A Bulgarian terrorist kills King of Yugoslavia which will later on side with Nazi germany and fall apart for Russia to install communism and later on after Tito's death Yugoslavia dies and many nations are finally freed (land that Hungary and Italy wanted along with Bulgaria)

  57. It seems that it took the king to be assassinated for people of Yugoslavia to understand it's idea and benefit everyone would have from unification. Alas, it was too late.

  58. What is extremely interesting and little known about Aleksander's assassination is that he actually chose to not wear a bullet proof vest even though he was advised to do so by his security team (he was likely to know what was coming his way due to previous attempts on him before). He apparently stated something along the lines of "the good French people would never dare to harm me" when he rejected to wear a bullet proof vest. It seems to indicate that he possibly allowed himself to be assassinated on purpose since he also mentioned something about "sending a message" (that Yugoslavism is a failure? idk) to the Serbian people before his assassination. Just to be clear, my claims come from what I've been informed by people I know who have access to the private archives of the Karadjordjevic dynasty during Yugoslavia.

    Anyway, my personal opinion is that all of this with Yugoslavia was almost completely inevitable and doomed from the start. For Serbs, trying to form a Yugoslavia of "brotherhood and unity" with peoples' of other ethnicites (Croats, Slovenes, Bosnian Muslims) whose soldiers and officers were especially eager in committing mass war crimes and atrocities against Serbs (Vrazja Division, Macva and Slovenian journalist Marko Natlacen's infamous 28th July 1914 proclamation of "Hang the Serbs on Willow Trees" comes to mind) in the service of Austria-Hungary is borderline lunacy or even cuckoldry (surprise surprise, they used WW2 and 1990's wars to again commit mass murder, war crimes and atrocities against Serbs). Croats and Slovenes used the opportunity in 1918-1919 to join Yugoslavia not because they were fond of Serbs, let alone believed in Yugoslavism, but in order to save themselves from being partitioned by Italy, Hungary and Austria. Once that threat was gone, they immediately went to work at undermining Yugoslavia and whining about how it was all really "Greater Serbia" when, as Voivode Zivojin Misic advised, Serbs could've easily chosen to openly form a "Greater Serbia" by taking the land they wanted and ditching Croats and Slovenes to be partitioned by foreigners.

    After all this though, now Serbs are un-ironically blamed as the evil oppressors that cynically used the cover of Yugoslavism to dominate everyone, and also, despite the self-contradiction, were the aggressors and destroyers of Yugoslavia. Without even going into how many human casualties Serbs suffered (and many other forms of suffering) in the 20th century, I guess this is proverbially how "the cookie crumbles" and the world works. Well, we will see about all that though, and how all this unfinished business will be solved in the future …

  59. The idea of "Yugoslavia" was doomed to fail from the start. Cultural and economic differences were too. Perhaps a loose confederation, but nothing like King Alexander and his regime sought.

  60. You can watch Black Sun or on Serbian "Senke nad Balkanom" which is series similar to Babylon Berlin and Peaky Blinders in some way and they are filming about this time and this topic in Yugoslavia. Check it.

  61. Yugoslavia in between world wars was a cruel dictatorship. It isn't surprising separatists movements formed, especially considering vast cultural as well as economic differences between ethnicities. A similar thing happened again in the late 80s early 90s when Milosevic sought nationalistic centralism, sparking the breakdown of the country again.

  62. 19:32 "somehow he survives, he was taken in for interrogation. He dies later that evening." Hilarious.

  63. Cultural appropriation is just forcing for a reaction. Always. Times like to repeat themselves. Similar things happen over and over, different places. People like water tend to flow to lower heights.

  64. I did not even know that about Alexander I and the police state. So, now I'm not suprised, what came later.

  65. 'How to make your really divided population stop fighting internally against eachother ?'
    'Suppress them enough so that they'll hate us more than eachother'

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