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Google Data Center Efficiency Best Practices — Full Video


ERIK TEETZEL: Here at Google,
data centers are very important to us. They are how we deliver all
of our web services to all of our users. A data center can mean
a variety of things. It can mean a small closet
filled with a couple of machines all the way to very
large warehouse scale buildings that are optimized for
power use and IT computing and filled with thousands
of servers. At Google, we spend a lot of
time innovating the way in which we design and build these
facilities to minimize the amount of energy, and water,
and other the resources that these computing
facilities use. In terms of the results of all
of the work that we’ve been doing over many, many years, now
we use half of the energy of the typical data center. To put things into perspective,
the entire ICT sector, that includes mobile
phones, computers, monitors, cell phone towers, represents roughly
about 2% of global greenhouse gas emissions. Of that 2%, the data
center portion is responsible for about 15%. There’s design choices that
you can make for energy efficiency that improve
the performance of your data center. And these things are just
best practices. And adhering well to best
practices, that’s how you can actually make the most
improvement in terms of energy use. The results of the these types
of activities return Google millions of dollars
in energy savings. So the results are
significant. We’ve invited several members
of our data center team to explain some of these best
practices to all of you. KEVIN DOLDER: The first step in
managing the efficiency of your data center is to make
sure you have the instrumentation in place to
measure the PUE, or power usage effectiveness. PUE is the ratio of total
facility energy to IT equipment energy within
your data center. It’s a measure of how
effectively you deliver power and cooling to the
IT equipment. In 2006, the typical PUE
of an enterprise data center was 2.0. Which means that for every one watt of IT
energy consumed, one watt of overhead was consumed by the
facility to deliver the power and cooling. ERIK TEETZEL: Reducing
the overhead is really what you want. You want PUE to get to as close
to 1.0 as possible. KEVIN DOLDER: Over the last 12
months, our TTM PUE was 1.16. We’ve continuously measured that
and it’s gone down nearly every quarter since we began
reporting it back in 2008. Last quarter the lowest
data center was 1.09. Ideally, you should measure PUE
as fast as you can, as often as you can, every
second or so. And the more often you can
measure it, the more meaningful the results will be. It’s important to measure PUE
over the course of a year — annually or quarterly — to
get a meaningful result. If you just take snapshots in
time the information won’t be realistic and it won’t really
be an actual measure of how well your data center
is operating. One way to make it easier to
manage is to incorporate the PUE measurements into your
building management system. We do this at all of our
sites at Google. Without having easy access to
this data we wouldn’t to be able to operate our
data centers as efficiently as we do. ERIK TEETZEL: Once you have
the ability to measure and manage your PUE, the first step
in terms of reducing your data center energy load
is to focus on the management of the air flow. The most important thing here is
to eliminate the mixing of the hot and the cold air. And there’s no one right
way to do this. Containment can be achieved
through many different approaches. One thing we found very useful
at Google is CFD analysis to see where are your hot spots and
how is your air flow going actually be directed in
your data center? By doing so, you can actually
model the way in which air flow will go and it helps you
make very simple design choices to improve the air
flow in your data center. For example, in one of our
computing and networking rooms, we call them CNRs, we
actually did some thermal modeling to see exactly what
air flow was doing. Through that modeling we
realized that the intake to our CRACs was too low. And that by simply piecing
together some sheet metal we could create extensions that
would dramatically increase the air flow quality
into the CRACs. We also did a bunch of
other retrofits. KEN WONG: Here in this corporate
data center at Google, we’ve implemented meat
locker curtains that are very inexpensive and easy
to install. These are hung from the overhead
structure and they separate the cold aisle, which
is actually hot, and the hot aisle, which is actually
hotter. We are set now to enter to hot
aisle containment door. And we incorporated these simple,
inexpensive, sheet metal doors to separate very tightly the
cold aisle from the hot aisle. Now over here, we’ve got the
hot air from the racks coming up, going over head,
up through the return air plenum back to the CRAC units to give
you a nice high temperature differential across
your CRAC units. A very important step is to seal
the rack space where you don’t quite have all of your
equipment populated. And it’s very easy to do with
these blanking panels. It’s almost like weatherizing
your house to make sure that you’ve got a nice, tight
environment. ERIK TEETZEL: All totalled, we
spent about $25,000 in parts. And those $25,000 saved
us over $65,000 in energy costs yearly. Once you manage your air flow
properly, the next step in data center efficiency is to
increase the temperature of your cold aisle. It’s long been believed by many
data center operators that the data center has to be
cold to keep all the equipment at a temperature that it
will run safely at. And in fact, that’s
just false. So if you look at recommended
guidelines from ASHRAE, they recommend you running all
the way up to 80 degrees Fahrenheit. And at Google, that’s
exactly what we do. We’ve got a small corporate
data center here. It’s about 200 kilowatts
of load. Simply raising the temperature
from 72 degrees to 80 degrees saves us thousands of dollars
in energy costs every single year. What’s nice about that is it
also allows our employees to come to work in shorts. Whenever possible, we recommend
people to free cool. Free cooling means utilizing
ambient temperatures outside of your data center to be able
to provide cooling without operating very heavy
energy consuming equipment like chillers. CHRIS MALONE: We use
free cooling at all of our data centers. And you can see this in our
publicly recorded PUE data where the PUE values go up in
the summertime and down in the wintertime. And this is just a reality of
running our operations with free cooling. And it yields tremendous
efficiency gains. In Europe, we have two data
centers that have no chillers whatsoever. We’re able to take advantage of
the local constraints and conditions. In Belgium, we use evaporative
towers without any chillers given the ambient conditions. In Finland, we use
sea water cooling. Sea water from the Bay of
Finland cools the servers. And then we temper the water
returning to the Bay of Finland so there’s no
temperature gradience returning to the bay. Evaporative cooling uses water
on site, but what we found through our studies is that by
the use of evaporative cooling in a very efficient fashion,
we save water on the whole. So for every gallon of water
that we use in the evaporative cooling plants, we eliminate
the use of two gallons of water on the energy
production side. This translates into hundreds
of millions of gallons per year in water savings. There’s no one right way to
deliver free cooling. The important point is that
you should examine these opportunities and take advantage
of them to eliminate or reduce substantially the
mechanical cooling. TRACY VAN DYK: In the data
center, you pull power in from the electrical grid and you
convert it down to the voltages that are needed
for all the components in the data center. And there’s a lot conversion
stages in there. By minimizing those conversion
stages, you can save money and save energy. Also by making each conversion
stage more efficient you can save energy, as well. Traditionally, one of the
biggest losses is UPS, Uninterruptible Power Supply. Typically, there’s a giant
room of batteries. The batteries are DC voltage. And the power coming in to
charge those batteries is AC. And so you need to convert from
AC down to DC with a rectifier in order to charge
the batteries. And then when the batteries are
needed in a power event, you need to convert that back
to AC with an inverter. And then the AC needs to be
converted back down to DC for all the components in
the data center. So you’ve got three conversion
stages in there that are not necessary. What Google has done is put a
battery on board the tray. So you’re eliminating those
three conversion steps. You just have DC right into
the server components. In a typical server
configuration, you have a server with an AC/DC power
supply attached to it. By making sure that AC/DC power
supply is efficient, you can save a lot of energy. Things like Energy Star labels
will point you to power supplies that are 90%
plus efficient. Google is able to save over
$30 dollars per year per server by implementing all
of these features. ERIK TEETZEL: There really are
very simple, effective approaches that all of us can
implement to reduce the data center energy use. And most of them are cost
effective within 12 months of operation. So a lot of efficiency best
practices should be adopted by just about everyone. They’re applicable to
small data centers or large data centers. It’s simply following the five
steps that we go through here to make sure that you’re able
to reduce your energy use. 1. Measure PUE
2. Manage Airflow
3. Adjust Thermostat
4. Utilize Free Cooling
5. Optimize Power Distribution

Glenn Chapman

60 Comments

  1. That UPS solution is just brilliant! That should change the way PC's are built…..architecture etc…..WOW!

  2. That Erik Teetzel reminds me of Daniel Jackson (Michael Shanks) from Stargate SG1.

  3. Everyone open their gmail right now so Google overheats and crashes

  4. OMG NOW I WANT TO WORK AT GOOGLE! I can go to work in SHORTS! πŸ˜€

  5. cost 25K in equipment + 5K year in maintenance costs + 250K in labor (design + engineering + installing) = its going to take a long time to get money back on 60K a year in savings.

  6. i heard the machine send this message to the comments page =) *thumbs up*

  7. @Rider19Ih hahahah destroy google to save earth from terminators

  8. It's a Data Center efficiency video…. what do you expect? Some amazingly entertaining video? It's informative, not entertainment.

  9. @elok2012 Who says it's supposed to be entertaining? It's an informative video.

  10. If Apple commented "Oh, so our 1 billion dollar data center isn't good enough for you?!"

    Then that would be the greatest comment of all time.

  11. You can keep the 1second of my life but can you please give me the rest 10 minutes of it back?

  12. its ironik that the green guy says running at 6:51 and this fat guy walks in the background…and im really tierd lol,wtf:)

  13. Because you're incompetent. I doubt you care about most of the things mentioned in this video.

  14. The first guy explaining stuff reminds me of mr Smith from the matrix.

  15. One tip: you can use the worm water to worm up houses in the winter. That will also save a lot of money and the environement. Google is the best search browser. πŸ˜€

  16. Could Google not offer free heat or warm water to any adjacent company that would benefit from this free energy. Greenhouses for crop production, drying houses for wood or wet materials, waste treatment plants to accelerate biodigestion.

  17. What do you mean exactly by saying: Put a battery on board the tray?????

  18. very nice Channel, i certainly love this video, keep on it

    It’s hard to search out knowledgeable people on this matter, however you sound like you recognize what you’re talking about! Thanks

    You must take part in a contest for top-of-the-line video on theyoutube. I will recommend this youtube videol!

  19. what's with all of the wiggling? Is that the corporate dance – the googlewiggle?

  20. Evaporative coolers tend to need a lot of service. Has Google thought of any inexpensive ways to clean heavy calcium build up?

  21. Please extrapolate "1.0" a bit more! A one-to-one ratio of overhead to computing power? Output? I don't quite get it. Thanks, hear?

  22. Aka "M.M.A.U.O." which is exactly the sound that my cat makes when he wants to go outside.

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